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Synopsis : Germany and the Holy Roman Empire From Maximilian I to the peace of Westphalia 1493 1648 written by Joachim Whaley, published by which was released on . Download Germany and the Holy Roman Empire From Maximilian I to the peace of Westphalia 1493 1648 Books now! Available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. --
Type: BOOK - Published: 2021-10-25 - Publisher: BRILL
Shortly after the Augsburg peace settlement of 1555, from 1563 to 1576, the Holy Roman Empire was threatened by the rivalry between Denmark and Sweden. This book examines the empire’s reaction to a foreign crisis, the Seven Years’ War of the North, and the connections between foreign policy and internal imperial politics. This study highlights the empire’s internal organization and politics by introducing the concepts of initiative and consensus.
Type: BOOK - Published: 2018-07-19 - Publisher: Oxford University Press
Voltaire's description of the Holy Roman Empire as 'neither holy, nor Roman, nor an empire' is often cited to underline its worthlessness. German historians traditionally despised it because it had allegedly impeded German unification. Since 1945 scholars have been more positive but the empire's history and significance is still largely misunderstood. In this Very Short Introduction Joachim Whaley outlines the fascinating thousand-year history of the Holy Roman Empire. Founded in 800 on the basis of Charlemagne's Frankish kingdom, its imperial title went to the German monarchy which became established in the ninth and ten centuries. They claimed Charlemagne's legacy, including his role as protector of the papacy and guardian of the Church. Around 1500 the title Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation was adopted. An elective monarchy, the empire gradually developed from a feudal monarchy into a legal system that pacified the territories and cities of German-speaking Europe. By 1519 it had a supreme court and a regional enforcement system ended feuding. Throughout its lifetime, the empire's growth and history was shaped by the major developments in Europe, from the Reformation, to the Thirty Years War, to the French revolutionary wars, which led to Napoleon destroying the empire in 1806. The sense of a common history over a thousand years and the legal traditions established by the empire have shaped the history of German-speaking Europe ever since. Joachim Whaley analyses the empire's crucial impact and role in the history of European power and politics, and shows that there has never been a more durable political system in German history. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
Type: BOOK - Published: 2007-09 - Publisher: AuthorHouse
Who exactly are the Germans? From which ancestor of Noah do they descend? Might their roots be found in the ancient Middle East? Does the Bible - God's precious Word - have anything to say with regard to the very talented German peoples and their ancient roots? Or does God ignore major nations such as Germany in His Word? These fascinating and highly talented people have been central to world history. Notice a chilling comment in an article on Russia by Peter Zeihan: ..". history really does run in cycles. Take Europe for example. European history is a chronicle of the rise and fall of its geographic center. As Germany rises, the powers on its periphery buckle under its strength and are forced to pool resources in order to beat back Berlin. As Germany falters, the power vacuum at the middle of the Continent allows the countries on Germany's borders to rise in strength and become major powers themselves. Since the formation of the first "Germany" in 800, this cycle has set the tempo and tenor of European affairs. A strong Germany means consolidation followed by a catastrophic war; a weak Germany creates a multilateral concert of powers and multistate competition (often involving war, but not on nearly as large a scale). For Europe this cycle of German rise and fall has run its course three times -- the Holy Roman Empire, Imperial Germany, Nazi Germany -- and is only now entering its fourth iteration with the reunified Germany."
Type: BOOK - Published: 2002 - Publisher: Brill Academic Pub
Shortly after the Augsburg peace settlement of 1555, from 1563 to 1576, the Holy Roman Empire was threatened by the rivalry between Denmark and Sweden. This book examines the empire s reaction to a foreign crisis, the Seven Years War of the North, and the connections between foreign policy and internal imperial politics. As this study will show, and contrary to most assumptions, the empire, through its confederal structure, was able to provide effective means for defending the domestic order against external dangers. Further, the empire could conduct a common foreign policy to protect common interests. This study highlights the empire s internal organization and politics by introducing two new concepts: initiative and consensus. Initiative was possible on the basis of consensus, but as this study reveals, there were two specific limits on building consensus. First, the empire s polities could only support a common approach if they had common aims. Second, a united approach to an outside crisis had to foster the preservation of internal stability. Motivated by German commerce in the Baltic, the empire was persistent in trying to achieve peace in that region. The empire was not alone in its interest in the Scandinavian conflict, which threatened no less than the economic well-being of western Europe.
Type: BOOK - Published: 2011-06-21 - Publisher: Macmillan International Higher Education
The Holy Roman Empire covered much of Europe and lasted for over a millennium, but has long been regarded as ineffective and largely irrelevant to broader historical issues. Drawing on a wealth of research, Peter Wilson offers an alternative interpretation of the Empire's last three centuries. The Holy Roman Empire 1495-1806, second edition: • explains key stages in the Empire's development within the context of wider European history • provides a comprehensive guide to its institutions and the central debates • incorporates the latest scholarship and has been fully revised and updated throughout, offering more in depth treatment of major issues • features a new chapter on whether the Empire can be considered the first German nation state. Clear and concise, this established book is an ideal introduction for anyone who is studying the structure and significance of the Holy Roman Empire and its impact on early modern Europe.
Type: BOOK - Published: 2019-12-18 - Publisher: e-artnow
The main goal of this edition is to present the Holy Roman Empire as an institution or system, the wonderful offspring of a body of beliefs and traditions which have passed away from the world. Such a description, however, would not be intelligible without some account of the great events which accompanied the growth and decay of imperial power; and it has therefore appeared best to give the book the form rather of a narrative than of a dissertation; and to combine with an exposition of what may be called the theory of the Empire an outline of the political history of Germany, as well as some notices of the affairs of medieval Italy. The Roman Empire Before the Invasion of the Barbarians The Barbarian Invasions Restoration of the Empire in the West Empire and Policy of Charles Carolingian and Italian Emperors Theory of the Mediæval Empire The Roman Empire and the German Kingdom Saxon and Franconian Emperors Struggle of the Empire and the Papacy The Emperors in Italy: Frederick Barbarossa Imperial Titles and Pretensions Fall of the Hohenstaufen The Germanic Constitution—the Seven Electors The Empire as an International Power The City of Rome in the Middle Ages The Renaissance: Change in the Character of the Empire The Reformation and Its Effects Upon the Empire The Peace of Westphalia: Last Stage in the Decline of the Empire Fall of the Empire
*Includes pictures *Includes a bibliography for further reading Despite the pope's aversion to temporal glory, his authority tended to fill the vacuum in the West left when the last Western Roman emperor, Romulus Augustus, was deposed in 476. The pope would continue to do so until 800, when Charlemagne would allow himself to be crowned Emperor of the West in Rome upon receiving his crown from Pope Leo III. This created modern Europe and was the culmination of two centuries of papal policy aimed at securing its independence from the Byzantine Empire in Constantinople. Before Charlemagne's coronation, there had been no formal break with Constantinople, but recognizing Charlemagne aimed to ensure the Roman Empire was reborn in the West. For the papacy, the new empire, now commonly referred to as the Holy Roman Empire, secured its independence from Constantinople since the new emperor had received his crown from the Church. The popes maintained and would continue to maintain for centuries that the imperial power lay in their hands as the heirs and custodians of ancient Rome, and that they had delegated that power to the King of the Franks. The papacy would guard this doctrine jealously, and for centuries it held that no man could call himself emperor until the pope had placed the Crown of Charlemagne upon his head. Naturally, many Holy Roman emperors disputed the pope's interpretation of their authority, and the battles between popes and emperors shaped European history for much of the Middle Ages. Pope Gregory VII (r. 1073-1085) famously declared that the pope had no earthly judge and that he might depose emperors and absolve their subjects from the oaths of allegiance. He demonstrated this power by forcing Emperor Henry IV, in penitential garb, to wait upon him in the snow outside the walls of Canossa, and after three days the pope deigned to absolve him from excommunication. For a time, the popes were masters of Europe, but in the end their power was eroded by the growing tide of nationalism, religious indifference, and the papacy's own corruption. As this suggests, the Holy Roman Empire was a fascinating institution as well as one of the most perplexing and contradictory. It was both German and universal. It was created by the Catholic Church, yet in the end enshrined confessional freedom in its constitution. It was both an empire and a collection of loosely federated principalities and city-states. It was Roman, but based in Germany, and for most of its existence it either ignored the Vatican or was at war with it. The Swabian League, an alliance of cities and states in the southwest of Germany within the Holy Roman Empire was interesting in itself both for the way it influenced imperial politics and for how it shaped the German nation and thus the history of Europe.There were two Swabian Leagues, with the first in the High Middle Ages and the second being formed during the Renaissance. The Protestant Reformation tore apart the alliances in the 16th century, and the divisions continued to influence the history of Germany well beyond the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806. In fact, it can be argued that the Swabian League created the German nation as it exists today, and its influence lives on through the autonomous Swabian peoples who live in the federal German state of Baden-Wurttemberg. The Swabian League: The History and Legacy of the Mutual Defense Pact for the Holy Roman Empire's Imperial Estates examines the events that led to the formation of the Swabian League, and what eventually brought about its demise. Along with pictures depicting important people, places, and events, you will learn about the Swabian League like never before.
Type: BOOK - Published: 2012 - Publisher: Oxford University Press
In the first single-author account of German history from the Reformation to the early nineteenth century since Hajo Holborn's study written in the 1950s, Dr Whaley provides a full account of the history of the Holy Roman Empire. Volume II extends from the Peace of Westphalia to the Dissolution of the Reich.